The Press Reads: A Year Across Maryland
Black-eyed Susans in Bloom
The Maryland State Flower (ofﬁcially, our “ﬂoral emblem”) is perhaps our best-known and best-loved wildﬂower of deep summer. A sun-loving plant, black-eyed susans do well in ﬁelds, along roadsides, and in gardens, in poor or rich soil, and regardless of whether the summer has been wet or dry. These lovely plants are annuals or short-lived perennials, but they produce seed in such quantity that they seem present every year. Black-eyed susans spread readily and are common to most of North America.
Black-eyed susans have composite ﬂower heads with bright yellow “petals” and a chocolate to deep purple central disk. What appear to be petals actually are complete ﬂowers, called ray ﬂowers, with tiny reproductive structures present at the base of each. The central disk contains hundreds of very small ﬂower buds organized in a tightly packed whorl. A close look will reveal that each day a few of the buds will bloom as tiny perfect yellow disk ﬂowers, so small that they appear like yellow pollen atop the dark-colored disk.
Where to see black-eyed susans this week: Cultivated black-eyed susans are common in ﬂower beds and on highway median strips where they have been planted. Power line right-of-ways, like those between Baltimore and Washington, D.C., often host the wild variety of black-eyed susans.
Trip of the Week: Gettysburg National Military Park
What to see and do: Perhaps the most significant battle in American history took place during the ﬁrst three days of July 1863, at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, just a few miles north of central Maryland. The large battleﬁeld has been faithfully restored and maintained, and the National Park Service offers the opportunity to learn as much about the battle as you wish. To visit in early July and experience the heat and humidity as the soldiers did 150 years ago (except they were wearing heavy, often wool uniforms) heightens one’s appreciation of their valor and dedication to duty. While the battleﬁeld can be toured by auto, perhaps the ideal way to explore the park is by bicycle, where it is a simple matter to dismount to view monuments, explore rarely visited byways, and enjoy fresh air and the sounds of nature. The Gettysburg battleﬁeld is a strikingly attractive rolling landscape of forest and ﬁeld that is well worth a visit for its natural features, in addition to its great historical significance
Naturalist’s tip: For years, whitetail deer were protected from hunting in the Gettysburg Park, but they reached a high population density and overgrazed delicate forest vegetation. Finally, when their browsing changed the appearance of the park from what it was in 1863, Park Service ofﬁcials greatly reduced the herd size. The vegetation responded. Wildﬂowers soon re-populated the forest ﬂoor, tree seedlings began to grow to the sapling stage, and as a result the park now has a more natural appearance.
More information: Visit the National Park Service at www.nps.gov/gett/index.htm.